Competitions for men are held in three types of weapons - foil, saber, epee, for women - foil and epee. The contact with the weapon of the opponent's target surface is determined by the referee and with the help of an electrical fixator.
A sports foil with a total length of 110 cm and a weight of up to 500 g, the hand is protected by a round guard with a diameter of 12 cm.
Sports saber up to 105 cm long, weighing up to 500 g, steel elastic blade of trapezoidal variable section with a guard that protects the hand.
Sports epee with a total length of no more than 110 cm and weighing up to 770 g, a thrusting weapon with a flexible steel blade of a triangular cross-section, the hand is protected by a guard with a diameter of 13.5 cm.
In fights on rapiers, injections are allowed only in the torso, on swords - in all parts of the body, except for the nape, not protected by a mask, in sabers - injections (or blows) in all parts of the body above the waist. Fights are held on a fencing track 14 m long and 1.8 - 2 m wide.
Athletes perform in light protective jackets covered with a metallized fabric (rapier, saber), in masks with a metal mesh and in a glove on an armed hand.
- Combat fencing is the art of wielding various types of hand melee weapons. That is to say, the practical part of preparing a real warrior for a real battle;
- Sports fencing is, as the name implies, a sport in which European and world championships are held today. Also, sports fencing is included in the program of the Olympic Games;
- Artistic fencing is a type of sports fencing. The main goal of the athletes is to present, both to spectators and judges, a believable duel using real cold steel;
- Historical fencing is based on the use of ancient techniques and combat tactics. Also, athletes participating in the duel of historical fencing put on ancient equipment, costumes and take copies of weapons of skilled craftsmen of the past;
- Stage fencing - this type of fencing is aimed at a spectacular demonstration of how you can wield hand-held melee weapons. Stage fencing is a discipline in many theater schools.
Fencing originated in Spain in the 15th century. It was there that it gained the greatest popularity. In 1567, the Fencing Academy was established by King Charles IX. If we turn to the cultural side of the issue, it is hard to miss such a nuance as the motto of fencing. It was formed back in 1650, when Moliere said the following words: "Fencing is the art of striking blows without getting them."
After a while, in addition to Spain, other countries began to participate in the life and development of fencing. So, for example, in 1765 the French proposed to use special fencing masks in battle in order to increase the safety of this sport.
The first Olympic Games, which, as you know, were held in Athens, included this sport in their program. Therefore, it should not be surprising that fencing has become so popular all over the world.
In 1913, the International Fencing Federation was created, which began to approve the general rules and activities related to the popularization of this sport. Since 1906, European championships have been held in fencing, and since 1937 - world championships.
As for the rules, in fact, most of them were formed in the Middle Ages. Today, however, as before, the main goal of every athlete (fencer) is to inflict an injection with a cold weapon on his opponent, and, of course, try to avoid this injection himself. The winner is the one who inflicts more pricks on his enemy.
As with other sports, fencing combat is directed and judged by a sports judge. The device, which was mentioned a little above, with the help of lamps registers the injections inflicted by the fighters. How does this happen? Everything is extremely simple: electrical circuits are in the clothes and in the weapons of the fencers. So these schemes are associated with an apparatus that registers injections.
Beynəlxalq Qılıncoynatma Federasiyası (FIE) 1913-cü ildə yaradılıb və buraya 130-dən çox milli federasiya daxildir.